Core-Periphery Model by Friedman

John Friedman was an urban theorist and founding figure of the Department of Urban Planning at the UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs. He propounded the core-periphery model of regional development in the year 1966. The Core-Periphery Model by Friedman shows the process of economic growth and urban development in time and space.  Basic Idea … Read more

Classification of Towns in India: M.K. Jain, Census

India is a very large country with more than a billion population and 31.3 percent of this population lives in 3784 Census Towns and 4041 Statutory Towns as per Census of India (2011). Therefore, a classification of towns in India is complicated and a humongous exercise. Hence, devising a simple method to classify Indian towns … Read more

Functional Classification of Towns by Ashok Mitra

Ashok Mitra gave his functional classification of town in year 1991 based on industrial categories in Census of India (1971). He was the Registrar General of Census of India. He, like Harris and Nelson, also classified the towns and cities of India based on economic function. Ashok Mitra’s functional classification of towns is most appropriate in … Read more

Mumford’s Organic Classification of Cities

Lewis Mumford proposed Organic Classification of Cities in a book titled “The Culture of Cities (1938)”. Mumford’s organic classification of cities  is similar to Griffith Taylor’s Classification of Towns. However, Mumford’s views present a comprehensive picture of the city’s development through his organic theory.  Basis of Mumford’s Classification Mumford was an American sociologist and philosopher. … Read more

Organic Classification of Towns by Griffith Taylor

Functional classifications of towns by C. D. Harris and Howard Nelson are primarily based on quantitative or empirical parameters. However, some classifications are based on theoretical knowledge and historical trends. One such classification of towns is Organic Classification of Towns. Such classifications assume the town to be an organism. Therefore, the town must go through … Read more

Functional Classification of Cities by Harris

Functional classification of cities by Harris is the a sophisticated classification of towns based on sound quantitative techniques. C.D. Harris published this classification in a research paper “A Functional Classification of Cities in United States” in 1943. Prior to Harris, other urban geographers and planners presented the classification of cities based on their experience and … Read more

Functional Classification of Towns by Nelson

The functional classification of towns by Nelson is based on experience of North American cities. He provided this classification of towns in his research paper “A Service Classification of American Cities” in 1955. He improved upon the Classification of Cities by C. D. Harris. However, Nelson’s method is more objective and has lesser individual bias … Read more

Bomb Cyclone

Recently, the readers might have come across viral photos and videos of homes, cars, roads, lawns etc. covered in four feet of snow near the Great Lakes Region in North America. This snowfall occurred, unexpectedly, in a very short period. The meteorologist attributed this atmospheric event to the Bomb Cyclone. However, most people don’t know the … Read more

Temperate Cyclone

Temperate cyclone is rotating weather system which is formed in mid-latitudes. Frontal Cyclones, mid-latitude depressions, extra-tropical cyclones are all synonyms of temperate cyclone. They derive their name from temperate climates which exist in the mid-latitudinal zone i.e. 30° to 60°latitudes. It is this zone where the warm tropical air mass meets the cold polar Air … Read more

What is a Cold Wave?

The winter season starts to set in after the autumnal solstice (23rd September) in the northern hemisphere. The months of December and January are the coldest months of winter in India. We often hear the news of cold waves. The reporters warn us of the different alerts issued by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). However, … Read more