Introduction to Aerial Photography

Aerial photography is the science and technology of capturing photos of the land surface from any flying object such as airplane, helicopter, drone etc. Gaspar Felix Tournachon was first first person to capture an aerial photograph in 1858 from an air balloon. However, Talbert Abrams is known as the father of Aerial Photography. He was … Read more

Weber’s Theory of Industrial Location

Alfred Weber is considered one of the pioneers of locational analysis in Geography. He gave his theory of industrial location in 1909. Weber’s theory of industrial location is a beautiful example of combining economic parameters with spatial parameters to arrive at a profitable location for industries. It is also known as Least Cost Theory because … Read more

Gravity Model of Migration: W.J. Reilly and G.K. Zipf

In the 1950s, Geographers and Demographers were increasingly attracted to methods of positivist sciences such as physics and mathematics. Therefore, they used different theories and models of these sciences in their own field to gain validation from the scientific community. This paradigm in social sciences is known as quantitative revolution. The Gravity Model of Migration … Read more

Theory of Intervening Opportunities by S.A. Stouffer

Samuel A. Stouffer gave the theory of intervening opportunities in his work “Intervening Opportunities: A Theory Relating Mobility and Distance” in 1940. This theory shows that the nature of geographic space is more important than the distance in determining migration behavior. According to Ravenstein’s Laws, distance is the most important factor in determining the migration … Read more

Lee’s Theory of Migration: Intervening Obstacles Model

Everett S. Lee’s Theory of Migration (1966) or Intervening Obstacles Model aimed to eliminate the shortcomings of the previous theories of migration by inculcating both opportunities and problems as factors of migration. Previously, most of the studies focused on making general unidimensional laws to explain migration e.g. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration. However, none of these … Read more

Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

Ernest George Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration are based on the data in Census of Great Britain. He was the pioneer demographer who provided the theoretical framework for understanding the spatial movement of migrants. He was a fellow at Royal Geographic Society and presented his paper in 1885 at Statistical Society of England. All other theories … Read more

Core-Periphery Model by Friedman

John Friedman was an urban theorist and founding figure of the Department of Urban Planning at the UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs. He propounded the core-periphery model of regional development in the year 1966. The Core-Periphery Model by Friedman shows the process of economic growth and urban development in time and space.  Basic Idea … Read more

Social Well-Being and Quality of Life

In another article, we have discussed the concept of Social Well Being in Geography. We concluded that social well being is a very generic concept and its perception varies from person to person. Therefore, the social scientists have come up with a new concept i.e. Quality of Life (QOL). They argue that the the social … Read more

Social Well Being in Geography

Social well being in Geography came to prominence during 1970s as a result of relevance movement. During 1970s, the most deprived groups in society, such as blacks, Hispanics, poor, disabled, sexual minorities and religious minorities etc., started political movements against those laws which hampered them from leading a dignified life. In response to this political … Read more

Where is it Six Months of Day and Night?

All of us know that earth rotates around its axis in 24 hours which, generally, contains 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night. The length of day and night varies, seasonally. The days become longer during the summer months and shorter during the winter months. However, there are two regions on earth which … Read more